Natural resistance to malaria linked to variation in human red blood cell receptors

Researchers have discovered that protection from the most severe form of malaria is linked with natural variation in human red blood cell genes. A study from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, the Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics and their collaborators has identified a genetic rearrangement of red blood cell glycophorin receptors that confers a 40 per cent reduced risk from severe malaria.

Published in Science, this is the first study to show that large structural variants in human glycophorin genes, which are unusually common in Africa, are protective against malarial disease. It opens a new avenue for research on vaccines to prevent malaria parasites invading red blood cells.

More than 200 million people a year are infected with malaria and the disease caused the deaths of nearly half a million people worldwide in 2015. Transmitted by mosquitoes, the most widespread malarial parasite in Africa is Plasmodium falciparum; it is also the most dangerous.

Plasmodium parasites infect human red blood cells and gain entry via receptors on the cell surface. Previous studies on natural resistance to malaria had implicated a section of human genome near to a cluster of receptor genes. These receptors — glycophorins — are located on the surface of red blood cells and are amongst many receptors that bind Plasmodium falciparum. However, it is only now that they have been shown to be involved in protection against malaria.

Researchers investigated the glycophorin area of the genome in more detail than before using new whole-genome sequence data from 765 volunteers in the Gambia, Burkina Faso, Cameroon and Tanzania. Using this new information they then undertook a study across the Gambia, Kenya and Malawi that included 5310 individuals from the normal population and 4579 people who were hospitalised from severe malaria. They discovered that people who have a particular rearrangement of the glycophorin genes had a 40 per cent reduced risk of severe malaria.

Dr Ellen Leffler from the University of Oxford, first author on the paper, said. “In this new study we found strong evidence that variation in the glycophorin gene cluster influences malaria susceptibility. We found some people have a complex rearrangement of GYPA and GYPB genes, forming a hybrid glycophorin, and these people are less likely to develop severe complications of the disease.”

The hybrid GYPB-A gene is found in a particular rare blood group — part of the MNS* blood group system — where it is known as Dantu. The study found that the GYPB-A Dantu hybrid was present in some people from East Africa, in Kenya, Tanzania and Malawi, but that it was not present in volunteers from West African populations.

Dr Kirk Rockett from the University of Oxford, said: “Analysing the DNA sequences allowed us to identify the location of the join between glycophorins A and B in the hybrid gene. It showed us that the sequence is characteristic of the Dantu antigen in the MNS blood group system.”

Studying the glycophorin gene cluster to determine differences between the sequences of the three genes with confidence is extremely challenging. This study gives insights into unpicking the region and how it connects to the MNS blood group system and impacts malaria susceptibility.

Professor Dominic Kwiatkowski, a lead author from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and University of Oxford, said: “We are starting to find that the glycophorin region of the genome has an important role in protecting people against malaria. Our discovery that a specific variant of glycophorin invasion receptors can give substantial protection against severe malaria will hopefully inspire further research on exactly how Plasmodium falciparum invade red blood cells. This could also help us discover novel parasite weaknesses that could be exploited in future interventions against this deadly disease.”

*The MNS system is a human blood group system based on two genes — glycophorin A and glycophorin B — on chromosome 4. There are 46 antigens in the system; the most common are called M, N, S, s and U.

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YOUNGEST PERSONALITY OF HEALTH SCIENCE MADE AN INSTANCE OF PERFECTNESS AND TRUTH

This article is about the youngest health science personality who established an instance in the world of health science. Dr. Sinchan Das, an Indian genius of health science world who is fighting against all the prevailing practices of health sciences which are responsible for the development of these disease pillars. But as Dr. Das said, the main problem of the society is the mentality of the peoples, because a dangerous trend is to passing comments whimsically without proper knowledge regarding any treatment or doctor or disease which play an important role to miss guide the persons. He said he is the witness of these mentality where patients had said to him that several persons had miss guided them regarding the treatment of homoeopathy, i.e. homoeopathy does not work, Homoeopathic medicines are hopeless, Homoeopathy is slow in working, Homoeopathy aggravates the conditions at first then relieves etc blah blah blah. But he had showed many evidences stating that these comments are absolutely worthless. We asked his some patients who was under the treatment of the modern medicine for a considerable period of time, but they had failed to relieve their suffering, among which several cases like Psoriasis, Diabetis mellitus- II, Gilbert’s syndrome, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Oral cancer, Cardiomyopathy etc.

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DR. SINCHAN DAS , IN HIS CLINIC

Dr. Sinchan Das is a personality devoted for the betterment of the world. His extra-ordinary talent and profound knowledge made him an idol for the suffering world.      Dr. Sinchan Das hit on the root of the prevailing practices of medical science with his axe of truth and scientific explanation. The issues he pointed out are not anything uncommon or tough to understand but is a matter of angle of observation. Dr. Das had explained the cause responsible for this uncontrollable disease pillars. He explained that, disease which thought to be an individual entity not related to the patient’s state or lifestyle and the medical science commonly segregated in several parts under the umbrella of different logies, this tendency or understanding is incorrect. He had showed with evidence that diseases are the picture which was stored in our gene since birth, whatever may be the suffering acute or chronic or whatever may be the cause of affection. This underlying picture will be detected from the posture, gesture, habits, physical appearance, mode of thinking, family history etc of the patient. He showed unscientific administration of drugs in a whimsical manner, lack of proper knowledge of the society and excessive dependence upon laboratory investigatory procedures are three main influencing factors responsible for the development of these mountains of sickness.

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DR. DAS DELIVERING LECTURE OF THE I.S.C., CHENNAI

Although he is a homoeopathic physician, but had profound hold over the each sectors of the medical science. Dr. Robert Brown, the renowned Geneticist from United Kingdom told that, “Dr. Sinchan Das is a wonder boy of this earth, who made us proud and enriched.” Dr. Sinchan Das shared a few experiences of his practice life, which denoted the dark part of the human behaviors where a manager of a reputed bank, who was a student of Chemistry in his graduation passed boldly the comments that Homoeopathy can not treat serious conditions like Epilepsy, because he know from his knowledge that it is unable to perform the desired effect, but Dr. Das preserved the copies of the documents of the patient, i.e. manager’s son, which clearly showed about the improvement of the condition. The patient got attacked in roughly at the interval of 15 days to 1 month, but after taking Cicuta virosa 30 for 1 month he is still not attacked by the epileptiform seizure from last 3 to 4 months. Another case is of a patient of Pneumonia in a 83 years old woman who was cured by the Pulsatilla 30 and still free form any respiratory abnormality, but his son an employee of Indian Railways, announced that she was not the victim of pneumonia and when Dr. Das said to the party that she might be suffering from Renal disorder, as her blood pressure is not controlled by Telmisartan 40 mg,and Amlodipine 5 conjointly, but the patient’s son denied due to unknown cause, as the criteria does not match his knowledge. Dr. Asish Singhania, renowned nephrologist of USA told that “continuous maintenance of such a high pressure is an important sign of renal impairment of a grave state”.

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DR. SINCHAN DAS , DELIVERING LECTURE 

It is very dangerous trend which have to stop immediately and permanently, because otherwise the scenario remain unchanged even after this extent of noble effort.  Prof. David Blakemann said, “It is our duty to save him like a precious gem, because he is the idol of purity and truth. Whoever may be the person trying to deranged him from his path has to be punished. Because no one have the right to insult a saviour of mankind in any form.”

https://scienceofhomoeopathy.wordpress.com/

https://worldnews824.wordpress.com/2017/04/08/new-health-science-world-championship-champion-in-from-india-with-unbreakable-record-score/

http://sciencetimes.yolasite.com/Articles.php

https://worldnews824.wordpress.com/2017/04/06/another-precious-gem-on-the-crown-of-the-kingdom-of-education-culture-medicine-india/

http://www.viralindiandiary.com/dr-sinchan-das-wiki-story/

http://artistopedia.com/wiki/Dr._Sinchan_Das

HEALTH FOR ALL

“Health is a state of complete  physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”. This definition is given by the father of Homoeopathy long ago. This is the most important part of this living world. Health is the right of every person to be healthy. Health professionals or doctors are the authority, whose duty is to provide health or health care facilities to the all levels of the society. But this is very painful that, this health practices are based on false principles and directed by a number of in efficient professionals which results into these uncontrollable disease pillars and above all several non medical personalities who don’t have any knowledge regarding medical science are directing others in wrong direction by their half hearted knowledge taken from several sites of internet or magazines.